Authentic Step by Step Illustrated Janazah Guide


  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First all praise is due to Allah; we praise Allah and seek Allah’s help and forgiveness. Without Allah’s guidance and help nothing can be achieved.

Behind every endeavor there are some individuals who make it possible. This compilation is no exception. My sincere thanks and appreciation goes to all brothers and sisters of the Salman Al - Farisi Islamic Center.

To mention some of those who helped : Br. Sheik Aqeel Al - Maqtary, Br. Sheik Magdy Wardah, Br. Awad Elgarguri, Sr. Huda (Christine Dodge), Br. Mansour Al - Mutairi, Br. Ghassan Al - Soraihi, Br. Umar Gunderson, Br. Abdennour Moussaoui, Br Abdulsalam saif, Br Ali Al-Shomrani and many others.

They gave their time, and knowledge, time after time, to review, correct, draw, and add, they were always willing to offer their assistance.

I ask Allah to accept our efforts, overlook our shortcomings and cover us all with His Mercy in this world and in the hereafter.

  

CONTENTS

Introduction. 3
A) Death. 5

1) When a Muslim is at the point of Death.

9

2) Just after Death has been determined.

10
B) Mourning the dead. 11
C) Al-Ghusul (Washing the body of a dead Muslim). 12
D) Al-Kafan (Shrouding the body of a dead Muslim). 14

1) Kafan of a male.

14

2) Kafan of a female.

16
E) Salatul Janazah (Funeral prayer). 18
F) Following the Janazah. 22
G) Al-Dafan (The Burial). 23
H) Special cases. 27

1) Miscarried fetus.

28

2) Children.

28

3) Martyr.

28
I) Condolences. 29
J) The Edda (Waiting period) for Muslim widows. 30
K) Rewards after death. 32
L) Visiting the Cemetery. 33
M) References. 35

 

INTRODUCTION

In the name of Allah Most Merciful Most Gracious

All praise is due to Allah; we praise Allah and seek Allah’s help and forgiveness. And we seek refuge in Allah, Most High, from the evils of our own selves. Whomsoever has been guided by Allah, none can misguide him, and whomsoever is misguided, no one can guide him except Allah.

And I bear witness that there is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allah Al Mighty, alone, without partner or associate. I further bear witness that Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is his true worshipper and messenger, may Allah the exalted bestow His peace and blessings upon him.

Allah says in the Quran "O you who believe! Fear Allah as Allah should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam " (Quran 3:102).

"O mankind ! Be grateful to your lord, Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate, and from them both Allah created many men and women, and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual rights and do not cut relations of Kinship. Surely Allah is ever a watcher over you "(Quran 4:1).

"O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah, and speak always the truth. Allah will direct you to do good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His messenger, he verily has got a great success " (Quran 33:70-71).

Know then that the most truthful book is that of Allah (The Quran) and that the best guidance is that of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.).

As Muslims, we all must submit to the will and commandments of Allah. Those commandments are in the Quran, the word of Allah, and in the Sunnah, the authentic teachings of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), and whatever his companions said or did of which he did not disapprove.

Allah in the Quran says : " We have explained in detail in this Quran, for the benefit of Mankind, every kind of similitude "(Quran 18:54), "And we have sent down to you the Book explaining all things: a guide, a mercy, and glad tidings " (Quran 16:89).

The Sunnah is the secondary source of Islamic law, it is the Prophet’s sayings, actions, and what his companions did to which he showed no objection. Allah in the Quran says that Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) does not speak from himself, but is inspired by Allah : "Nor does he say ought of his own desire and wishes; it is just inspiration sent down to him " (Quran 53: 3-5).

Muslims are ordered in the Quran to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (P.B.U.H), this means to obey and practice the commands of the Prophet.

Allah in the Quran says : " Whatever the Prophet ordered you to do, you should do, and whatever he forbids you, you should reject "(Quran 59: 7), " The sayings of the faithful believers when they are called to Allah ( His Words { the Quran } and His Messenger ) to judge between them is only that they say: " We hear and we obey," And such are the successful. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, fears Allah and keeps his duty (To Him), such ! They are the successful " (Quran 24: 51-52).

" But no, by your lord, they can have no (Real) faith, until they make you (Muhammad) a judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction " (Quran 4:65).

After the death of the Prophet, his companions gave sharp attention to preserving the Sunnah of the Prophet. Each one tried to find out what the Prophet did or said in certain situations, and then recorded it.

Later many scholars spent their lives investigating those who transmitted the Sunnah; they compiled the authentic Hadiths. Among these scholars are Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim; both wrote books that contain only authentic Hadiths.

The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) in many authentic Hadiths showed us in great detail how and what to say and do in our everyday lives.

Allah’s last revelation states that Islam is the perfect religion: "Today I have perfected your religion for you, bestowed my favor upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion " (Quran 5:3). Thus it is fitting for us as Muslims to follow the perfect guidance of Allah and His messenger through the Quran and the Sunnah.

But unfortunately, people listen to this and that, see the non-Muslim’s ways of doing things and then copy it and it becomes the norm . The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) predicted this by saying :" You would copy the same path as was done by those before you inch by inch and step by step so that if they had entered into the hole of a Dhab (a desert lizard) you will enter too." They ( The Prophet companions ) asked him: " You mean Jews and Christians by your words’ Those before you’ ?." He said: " Who else (than those two religious groups) " (Bukhari and Muslim).

Some Muslims say : " In our country we do things this way and that way, so it must be the right way ", others say : " We think this way is much better than the other way ".

So as long as the tendency remains among the Muslims in taking blind bride in following their ancestry or tribal heritage or culture or nationality, and as long as Muslims are hardly bothered to learn and take their practices from the pure knowledge, the Quran and the authentic Sunnah, more confusion, and more divisions will continue to hammer the body of the Muslim Ummah.

The message of Islam covers all aspects of life, commanding all things that will benefit a person in this life and the hereafter.

This includes caring for this person when he dies by making dua’ for him, washing and shrouding his body, performing Salatul Janazah for him ( Where people pray and ask Allah to forgive him and have mercy on him ), then putting him in the grave.

The caring extends to his family too, by comforting his relatives, sharing with them their sorrow, and offering them condolences, sympathy and support.

Hoping to fill the need for a simplified Janazah guide to all Muslims, I have followed the method described in the authentic Hadiths, explanatory step by step notes and several illustrated drawings.

I have also included an introduction on importance of following the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), and an explanation of scholars’ ruling on issues which should be known by every Muslim.



A) DEATH

This topic is very important, as each and every one of us will experience it one day and that is : Death.

Almost every day we hear of the death of someone, yet most people ignore the fact that one day they will die too, they go on with their life as if nothing has happened feeling that their time has not yet come for them to die.

Allah says in the Quran: " Everyone shall taste death. And only on the day of resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is removed away from the fire and admitted to paradise, this person is indeed successful. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception:" (Quran 3:185), " Every soul shall have the taste of death " (Quran 29:57).

In an authentic Hadith Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said : " Remember the destroyer of pleasures-death, for not a day passes upon the grave except it says ‘ I am the house of remoteness; I am the house of loneliness; I am the house of soil; I am the house of worms’ " ( Authentic-Thermithi).

The knowledge of the reality of death helps people understand it and prepare themselves for its coming.

Death is simply a transition state from one world to another, as birth is. No one knows when and where he will die or knows how.

In this respect Allah says in the Quran in Surat (Chapter) Luqman: " Nor does anyone know what it is that he will earn tomorrow: Nor does anyone know in what land he is to die. Verily with Allah is full knowledge and Allah is acquainted with all things " (Quran 31: 34).

Islam is the only religion that explains death in full detail, how it happens, and what Muslims should do before, during, and after the death of a Muslim.

Allah has assigned angels responsible for taking our souls out of our bodies. In the Quran Allah mentioned the Archangel name "Angel of Death".

Allah says in the Quran : " Say The Angel of Death put in charge of you, will (Duly) take your souls, then you shall be brought back to your Lord " (Quran 32:11).

Death involves agony and hardship as mentioned in an authentic Hadith : " When Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was dying, he put his hands in a large cup of water which was close to him and wipe his face with it, saying : ‘O Allah help me over the hardship and agony of death ’"( Authentic -Termithi).

For the faithful BELIEVERS Allah says in the Quran: " Those who have said ‘Our Lord is Allah’, and then have become upright, the angels will descend upon them saying ‘ Do not fear nor be sad, but receive good news of the paradise which you have been promised. We are your protectors in this life and in the hereafter: therein you shall have all that you desire; therein you shall have all that you ask for "(Quran 41:30-31).

Allah also says : " When the angels take the lives of the righteous, the angels say to them : ‘ Salaamun Alikum, enter paradise, because of the good deeds that you used to do (during your life) ’ " (Quran 6:32).

For the UNBELIEVERS, Allah says in the Quran : " If only you could see when the angels take the souls of those who disbelieved, striking their faces and their backs, and saying :‘ Taste the punishment of the fire. That is for what your own hands have put forth ( Of evil deeds )’ " (Quran 8:50-51).

Allah also says :" If you only could see when the transgressors are going through the agonies of death, and the angels stretching forth their hands saying ‘Deliver your souls; this day you shall be recompensed the torment of degradation because of what you use to utter against Allah other than the truth, and you used to reject Allah’s signs with disrespect’ " (Quran 6:93).

The grave is the first station of the stations of the hereafter. The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said: "When the deceased is placed in his grave and when his friends depart and leave him, he hears their footsteps, then two angels will make him sit and ask him : What did you say about this man ( Muhammad (P.B.U.H) ) ? The Believer will say: I bear witness that he was the servant and Messenger of Allah..

They (The two Angeles) will say to the deceased: Look to your place in Hell. Allah has substituted it with a place in paradise. They see it all together.

However, the unbeliever or the hypocrite, will be asked about Muhammad (P.B.U.H). He will say:’ I don’t know! I used to say what people used to say’. The two angels say to him:‘ How come you did not know and you did not read about him’. Then they beat him heavily with a metal hammer.This causes him to scream painfully and all his surroundings will hear him except human beings and Jinns." (Bukhari and Muslim).

Another authentic Hadith narrated by Imam Ahmed states that the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said two or three times: " Seek refuge in Allah from the punishment of the grave,’ then he said :‘ When a believer is about to leave this world, angels with bright faces like the sun come down to him from heaven with a shroud from the shrouds of paradise and some of the perfume of paradise and sit away from him as far as the eye can see.

Then the angel of death comes and sits at his head and says:’ O good soul, come out to forgiveness and acceptance from Allah’. The soul then comes out gently as a drop flows from a water - faucet and he seizes it.

Then the other angels take the soul from the angel of death and shroud it with the shroud from paradise, perfume with the perfume of paradise; its fragrance will be like that of the sweetest musk found on the face of the earth.

They then take the sweet-smelling soul up, and whenever they pass by a group of Angeles, they ask :‘ Who is this good soul ?’ The angels, accompanying the soul, reply using the best of his names that people used to call him by during his life:‘ So and so, the son of so and so.’ When they reach the first heaven they request permission to enter, and the gates will open to them.

The same is done in the following heavens until they reach the seventh heaven, and Allah says :‘ Record the book of my slave in the highest place and take him back to earth, for I created mankind from it, into it they shall return, and from it shall be brought another time.’

The soul returns to the body, and two angels come to him, make him sit and ask him: ‘ Who is your Lord ?’ He replies:‘ My Lord is Allah. They ask:‘ What is your religion ?’ and he replies:‘ My religion is Islam’. They ask again:‘ Who is this man who was sent among you ?’ He replies:‘ He is Allah’s messenger’. They ask :’ What is your knowledge ?’ He replies:’ I read the book of Allah, believed in it and declared it to be true.’ .

Then it will be said:‘ My slave has spoken the truth, so spread out carpets from paradise for him, cloth him from paradise, and open a gate for him into paradise’.

Then some of its joy and fragrance come to him, his grave is made spacious for him as far as he can see, a man with a glorious face, beautiful garments and sweet perfume comes to him and says:’ Rejoice in what pleases you for this is your day which you have been promised’..

He asks:’ Who are you, for your appearance brings goodness ?’. The man replies:’ I am your good deeds.’ He then says: ‘ O Allah, bring the hour, so that I may return to my family and property.’.

But when a non-believer is about to leave this world, angels with ugly faces come down to him from heaven with a hard and rough cloth, and sit away from him as far as the eye can see.

Then the angel of death comes and sits at his head and says:‘ O wicked soul, come out to anger and displeasure from Allah.’ It then becomes dissipated in his body.

The angel draws it out violently as a spit is drawn out from moistened wool, and he seizes it; then the other angels take the soul and put it in that rough cloth which emits a very offensive bad stench like the worst smell found on the face of the earth.

They then take the foul-smlling soul up, and whenever they pass by a group of Angels, they ask :‘ Who is this wicked soul ?’ The angels, accompanying the soul, reply using the worst of his names that people used to call him by during his life :‘ So and so, the son of so and so,’ when they reach the first heaven they request permission to enter and the gates will not open to them.

Then the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) recited this verse from the Quran : " The gates of the heaven will not be opened to them "(Quran 7:40), the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) continued saying :‘Allah then says:" Record his book in the lowest place,"’ and his soul falls down to earth.

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) then recited another verse from the Quran: " He who assigns partners with Allah is as if he had fallen down from heaven and been snatched up by birds, or made to fall by the wind in a place far distant " (Quran 22:31).

The soul returns to the body, and two angels come to him, make him sit and ask him:’ Who is your Lord ?’ He replies:‘ My Lord? Oh, I do not know’. They ask:‘ What is your religion ?’ and he replies:‘ My religion ! Oh, I do not know.

They ask again:‘ Who is this man who was sent among you ?’ He replies:‘ Oh, I do not know’. Then it will be said:‘ He has lied, so spread out carpets from hellfire for him, and open a gate for him into hellfire.’

Then some of its heat and poison come to him, his grave is made so narrow for him so that his ribs are pressed together in it.

A man with a horrifying face, ugly garments and offensive odor comes to him and says:‘ Be grieved with what displeases you for this is your day which you have been promised’. He asks:‘ Who are you, for your appearance brings evil ?’ The man replies:‘ I am your wicked deeds.’ He then says:‘ O Allah, do not bring the hour’" (Authentic-Ahmed).

All of this, and the day of judgment has not yet started. So I remind myself first and I remind you as my brothers and sisters to prepare for this day; prepare for it by truly and sincerely submitting to Allah, doing good deeds according to Allah’s commands in the Quran and the teachings of the Prophet.

Avoid all types of wrong and evil which Allah and the Prophet asked us to avoid, but do not delay or postpone since you do not know when death will come.

The following are simple step by step procedures for a Muslim funeral that explain what should be done Islamically when death occurs.

 

 

1) WHEN A MUSLIM IS AT THE POINT OF DEATH

Family members of the dying person and his most pious friends should be informed and should be present at his side to help him turn his thoughts to Allah, encourage him very gently to repent, remind him about all the good deeds that he did, about Allah’s mercy, and Allah’s forgiveness so that he may anticipate Allah’s mercy and Allah’s favors.

Allah in the Quran said: "And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord, but those who are misguided "(Quran 15:56).

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said: " Let no Muslim die except expecting and hoping the best from Allah" (Muslim).

Those who are present near a dying Muslim should do the following :

They should be kind and patient.

They should never leave him alone.

They should give him hope, not allowing him to collapse out of pain or panic.

They should prompt him very gently (Encouragement without insistence) every now and then to say the Shahada: "La ilaha ella Allah", which means ‘There is no God but Allah,’ in a very kind and sincere manner as these may be his last words.

Abu-Saeed Al-Khuduri reported that Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said : " Help Muslims who are dying to say: ‘ La ilaha ella Allah’ " (Muslim).

They should make Dua’ (Supplicate) to Allah to help him go through situation easy, and forgive him.


 NOTE:

There is no authentic proof of reading chapter (Yasin ) beside a dying Muslim.

There is no authentic proof of directing the dying Muslim to the Qiblah.

There is no Islamic teaching of putting the Quran under the head of a dying Muslim.

There is no Islamic teaching of asking junubs( Those who did not take a shower after a sexual act), or menstruating women, to leave the room .



2) JUST AFTER DEATH HAS BEEN DETERMINED

 When the person is confirmed dead, family members or those who are present should :

Close the eyes of the deceased.

Um Salma reported that : " When her husband died, Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) closed his eyes" (Muslim).

They should bind his lower jaw to his head so that it does not sag.

They should cover all his body completely with a clean sheet.

Aisha reported that : " Muslims covered the body of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) when he died" (Bukhari & Muslim).

They should make Dua’ (Supplicate) to Allah to forgive him.

They should hasten to prepare the body for washing, shrouding and burial.

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said: " You should hasten with his burial" (Bukhari & Muslim).

They should pay his debts from his money, or if there is not enough, then from any family member or any relative, this matter is important since the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) encouraged Muslims to pay the debts of the deceased.

 

NOTE:

There is no Islamic teaching of putting the Quran under the pillow of the deceased.

There is no Islamic teaching of asking junubs (Those who did not take a shower after sexual act), or menstruating women to leave the room of the deceased.

There is no Islamic teaching of putting flowers, candles etc., in the deceased’s room.



B) MOURNING THE DEAD

Mourning over the dead is allowed in Islam, but there is a great difference between what is allowed Islamically and the practice of some Muslims at the present time.

Grief at the death of a beloved person is normal, and weeping for the dead is allowed in Islam. What is prohibited is to express grief by wailing ( Bewailing refers to mourning in a loud voice), shrieking, beating the chest and cheeks, tearing hair or clothes, breaking things or scratching faces or saying phrases that makes a Muslim lose faith.

All of this is totally prohibited, and the deceased may feel pain by these actions, Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said: "The deceased suffers when someone bewails loudly" (Bukhari & Muslim).

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said : " Two things in people are Kufr ( Ignorance ), one is to ridicule someone on his family genealogy, and the other is bewailing loudly the dead " (Muslim).

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) also said : " I detest a woman who cries out very loudly, or shaves her hair, or tears her clothes when a beloved one dies " (Bukhari & Muslim).

Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said :" He is not of us who beats his face, tears his clothes and bewails loudly when misfortune happens to him as was done before during the days of ignorance " (Bukhari & Muslim).

Some people let their beard grow to show their sadness, then after several days they shave it. Others wear black clothes, or black ties. All of this has no basis in Islam..

It is a Muslim’s duty to advise gently those who do these things to stop doing so, since it is totally prohibited. No loss, however great, should lead a Muslim to sour his faith. They should however bear patiently and accept Allah’s destiny.

There is no objection to quiet weeping as Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) did when his son died and said : " It is a mercy that Allah made in the hearts of his servants" (Bukhari).

Relatives of a deceased Muslim may mourn him for three days only, but a widow may mourn her husband four months and ten days.

This is due to Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) who said : " It is prohibited for a woman who believes in Allah and the day of judgment to mourn any dead person more than three days except her husband four months and ten days " (Bukhari). This period is called the Edda (Waiting period) which is prescribed by Allah in the Quran (2 : 234).

  

C) AL-GHUSUL ( WASHING THE DEAD MUSLIM )

When a Muslim dies, it is the responsibility of his family or other Muslims to wash him according to the Islamic rites of washing the deceased. Two or three persons may perform the washing.

The person(s) who may wash the deceased should :

Be a trustworthy, and honest adult Muslim(s).

Know the Islamic way of washing the dead and be able to carry out the washing.

Not make any comment on the body of the deceased.


NOTE:

If the deceased is a male, then ONLY males should wash him.

If the deceased is a female, then ONLY females should wash her.

For a married person, the spouse may perform the washing.

For a child, either males or females may do the washing.

 


PLACE OF WASHING :

The deceased’s body should be washed in a clean, secluded, and private place where clean water and soap are available. Gloves or pieces of cloth are needed.

The body of the deceased should be washed with water and, if available, lotus leaves, or camphor (To be used in the final wash).

The washing should be done three or five, or any more odd number of times if necessary.

STEPS OF WASHING :

The body of the deceased should be placed on a table or alike, the deceased’s clothes should be removed, and the body should be covered with a sheet of cloth.

The head and the upper body should be raised slightly to insure the washing water with exudations from the body flows down and does not run back to the body.

The Aura (Private parts) of the deceased should be covered with a piece of cloth (The Aura of a male is from the belly button to the knee in the presence of males, for the female is the same in the presence of females).

The washer should start washing by saying:" Bismil - lah "," In the name of Allah ".

The washer winds a piece of cloth around his hand, and with this he cleans away any impurities from the body using water. Then he should dispose of this piece.

The washer should take another piece of cloth around his hand, press lightly the stomach of the deceased so as so to expel, if possible, any remnants from it, and then wash the body of all impurities using water. Then he should dispose this piece of cloth.

The washer should take another piece of cloth around his hand (May use gloves), and wash the covered private parts, then dispose of this piece of cloth.

The washer should perform Wudu (Ablution) on the deceased without inserting the water in the nose and in the mouth.

The washer should clean the body with water and soap (If available), starting from the head (hair, face and beard {Men}), then the upper right side of the body then the left side, after that the lower right side then the lower left.

In the case of a female, her hair should be loosened, washed, combed, and be braided in three braids, and placed behind her back.

The washing should be done three times, or five times, or seven times, as needed, providing that after washing the head, wash the right side before the left, and the upper parts before the lower ones.

In the last wash, the washer may use camphor, or some perfume with the water.

After that the body should be dried with clean towel.

Then the body should be totally covered with a white sheet.

Get ready to start the shrouding.

 SPECIAL NOTE : In case the deceased is a female in her menstrual period or have child birth bleeding, padding should be used to prevent blood from leaving the body.


NOTE:

It is recommended th